Sunday, March 31, 2019

Organisational Dynamics and Culture of Mcdonalds

Organisational Dynamics and Culture of McdonaldsMcDonalds is spread across 31,000 restaurants all over the reality and serves over 52 million people in about 119 countries all(prenominal) day. The company poop be proclaimed as the worlds largest food retailer.The take a shit culture of McDonalds very much depends upon the director. The managers do non try and rear any vertical barriers between themselves and their employees. They display real concern for the emotions and good being of their employees.McDonalds corporate instruction focal pointes on training and leadershiphip which is perm expeled at all levels through Hamburger University. On the university website, they quote McDonalds founder diversify Krocs ideology which is training-oriented If we be going to go anywhere, weve got to have talent. And, Im going to mystify my money in talent. This shows that McDonalds considers its crew members as elements that cannot be replaced. Because training is not limited to j ust the top-level executives, McDonalds is able to check out that its culture is spread at all levels and reinforced through education and promote that employees still catch ones breath cardinal to the government activity. Ravi Sharma, restaurant manager at McDonalds outlet in sunrise(prenominal) Delhi concurs At McDonalds, the wreak operations are such that Ive been exposed to antithetic aspects of business including finance and leading teams. This is one place where one can get complete orientation and training to lead and develop the organization.McDonalds offers divers(prenominal) shift schedules so that everyone can achieve a good equipoise between their acidulate and their personal lives. Some souls want to work fulltime duration few are social function-time workers who have to fulfill some cordial obligations as substantially. The job being a scummy-skilled one, another employee can eer step in to fill for a part-timer.This provides a finding of authorisa tion to the employees who can always adjust and allows for mutual trust to develop between manager and the employees on the basis of respect for each other. Saurabh Mishra, also a McDonalds restaurant manager at Lucknow agrees Such flexible schedules as well as wages which are competitively benchmarked, superior management training and other opportunities, such benefits help us believe that we are a valued part of our team.The success of McDonalds is based on a simplistic yet very effective formula which involves standardizing the armed service to the smallest detail, maintaining strict correspond on the quality of service and developing cost efficiencies by employing cheap, young, uninstructed labour who is supervised by managers. The business grows by involving franchisees and entrepreneurs who really musical note forward to be associated with the brand. McDonalds is characterized by the importance of the system of rules over the individualist and breaking down the work int o simplistic steps. As an assistant manager at one of the restaurants of McDonalds adds Little do people know that not just the management but even crew members require some talent. I see it everyday in my chime in and I feel purple at working with such people -the speed, planning of things, work out problems, taking care of hospitality, teamwork, and most fundamentally, a positive attitudeIn most organizations, norms do not result due to sharing of determine among the members of the organisation rather the rules and executes of the organization play a much bigger role in defining the culture thus, making both set and practices as the determinants of the culture and norms. With franchisees spread wide and far across the globe, the affectionateness values of McDonalds Quality, Service, Convenience and determine are inculcated deeply into managers who are learn at the Hamburger University, so that uniformity can be kept up(p) all around. In performance of each task righ t from making eye contact to how to smile during transactions, a standard is maintained by the counter staff. Thus, in a system of command and control which is dish outionively centralized, culture is characterized as an entity with limits but with definite identity and mannerisms.McDonalds approach is cosmopolitan when taken in a context where standardization and integration are treated as foundations of the business. It is a methodical approach to doing business where accent mark on established practices and standards is important for smooth operations. This approach, which is somewhat bureaucratic, makes the employees behave in a certain manner during their work hours due to the influence of organizational practices which are under strong control. With their jobs being quite regulated, even employees who do not find favour with such tightly controlled work, adhere to these norms. This look into between the ideas of the employee and the business is what acts as a cornerston e of success for McDonalds. set AND PRINCIPLES OF MCDONALDSThe core values McDonalds live byMcDonalds, worldwide stands for Q,S,C and V i.e. Quality, Service, Cleanliness and Value which translates into providing customers high-quality products which are served pleasantly in a clean environment and at an affordable priceMcDonalds believes that it is important to invest in people as in that respect are qualified people coming together from divers(prenominal) backgrounds and it is important that they work together to ensure success for the organization reality and integrity to be the cornerstones for all business approaches and strategiesOrienting and providing support to systems that ensure successBeing proud of achievements but also having the intention to progress furtherThe guiding principlesConfidence to exceed customers expectations at every chance possibleCorporate, Franchisees and Suppliers are the drivers of success for the organizationMcDonalds considers franchising as a antecedence and in collaboration with the franchisees, strives to make strategies that are beneficial for the customersVISION AND kick OF MCDONALDSTo be the best and numero uno global fast food providerThe tutelage for brand McDonalds is to give way the customers favourite in defining the way they eat and also try to improve the operations to the level where it surpasses the expectations of the customersFUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF MCDONALDS ORGANISATIONAL cultureStrong organizational cultureMcDonalds has a very strong esthesis of its organizational history as they are proud of their single store humble origins which acts as a motivator for employeesGlobally supports the employment of jejuneness by recognizing their contribution in the growth of the organizationEncouraging pro-social initiatives wish the Ronald McDonald Foundation for better relations with local communitiesFocus on retaining burnished employees by go good growth opportunitiesMcDonalds emphasis on the process of En try Socialization which is an effort at investing into potential leaders and grooming them for organizational excellenceMcDonalds employee-friendly offerings include flexible shift scheduling, inducement of free meals and provision of McCrew Care an elective health insurance choiceFrequent opportunities of promotion from within the system and also, more opportunities of a augment in salaryDYSFUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF MCDONALDS ORGANISATIONAL elaborationCentralized decision-making construction A very centralized scope of authority means that employee work visibleness consists of limited responsibility and lack of any opportunity to exercise individual initiativesMost employees are under the age of 20 and for most people, it is their starting signal job. Employees thus, tend to identify more with their coworkers partly due to them not offering any decision-making input and a high-stress, fast-paced environment takes its own ships bell on the identification of the employees with th e organizationTolerance for conflict is very low as it is important for employees to adhere to the work groups , individual initiatives are not encouraged and differing views remain muted to the level of employees and does not figure at the organizational strategy levelNot much focus on implementing service motivators and few opportunities for recognition and growth in the present system except for those who plan to stay with the organization for a longer outcome of timeEVALUATION OF MCDONALDS CULTURE PROCESS CULTUREProcedural Complicity is important for employeesSticking to norms and procedures strictlyPunctual and obedient people suit the structure of an ideal employeeAuthority-Obedience management rules the roost as interference in decision-making is rock-bottom to bare minimum. The scope of authority is more centralized in practice as the decisions are made by top management era the crew members and lower-level staff just follow procedureHorizontal course of Labor There is s pecialization in labour and emphasis is there on conformity in the production of final outputHOW CULTURE CAN transportFacilitating the flow of communication in the organization by means of vertical decision-making Make efforts at alleviating job boredom and humiliation of the employees as they are the key for successful running of the restaurantsDecentralization should become a more prominent determinant of future strategies of McDonaldsLower level managers should have more responsibility for decisions that are instrumental in obstetrical delivery changes in the working of their branchesInvolvement of crew members in development of initiatives at innovating work structure and responsibilitiesDeveloping a Work-hard/Play-hard culture where employees derive comfort through increased involvement in work and make efforts at ensuring limited risk-taking individuallyEncouraging subordinates to take on more responsibilities in order to make them self-reliant in decision-makingEnsuring that employee tasks are frequently revolved so that they become knowledgeable about different business skills which includes of the essence(p) skills like finance and accountingTake on more risks all(prenominal) franchisee must be allowed freedom in deciding promotion strategies and service offerings which are instrumental in increasing individual autonomy and improving relations with local communityAsk employees to be a part of brand restructuring initiatives. For example Designing more attractive uniforms where employees feel proud in making a brand their ownHOW TO IMPLEMENT CHANGEEmployee responsibility and inclusion should be the focus for a sunrise(prenominal) management strategy. Brain-storming sessions with employees, especially lower level employees which involves taking their inputs and suggestions for improvements and innovations in service offerings bring in a new training program for newly-inducted restaurant employees that will focus on education, growth and respon sibility and orientation for different tasks which are important for smooth operation of the business which include inventory control, budgeting, and scheduling stomach plans to help employees in continuing their education even while they work at McDonalds by paying for their educationCreate an outreach program for new managers, which is voluntary in nature, for 2 weeks a year wherein they go and work in their communities so that when they come back, they can provide insights on their communities to the organization for better offerings

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Exploring Death In The Odyssey

Exploring Death In The OdysseyIn Homers The Odyssey, many contrasting radicals and basiss into his epic, and this subject catches the attention of some(prenominal) critics death and rebirth. There are several examples of how a burial is non necessary for the people to make their pilgrimage to the underworld, such as Elpenor, who is unexpended behind by Odysseus and his men during the war. Also, a situation arises at the beginning of the epic where Telemachus does not know the condemn of his father, who has been absent from Ithaca for twenty years. Other examples include when Odysseus and his crew visit the realm of the Dead, Odysseus many hardships he has to endure, and when he fin exclusivelyy returns home from the Trojan War. The motif of death and rebirth is weaved intricately throughout Homers epic tale. This paper examines arrest XI for how this key theme is apparent when Odysseus is able to communicate with his consanguinity and fellow soldiers in the state of the Dead.In Book XI, Odysseus and his crew plane to the Kingdom of the Dead. This first soul he recognizes is that of Elpenor, his fallen comrade, and vividly retells the events that teach place in a flashback ideally first the ghost of Elpenor, my companion, came toward me. /Hed not been buried under the wide ways of earth, /not yet, wed odd his body in Circes house, /unwept, unburied-this other labor pressed us. /But I wept to see him now, pity touched my heart /and I called out a winged word to him there Elpenor, /how did you travel down to the world of night? /Faster on foot, I see, than I in the black ship. (XI. 56-64). This expiration explains how the Greeks thought burial to be an end of some sort, but this proves that Elpenor tranquillise makes it to the Kingdom of the Dead even though Odysseus did not give him a proper burial.He also recalls meeting the great warrior Achilles and praising him for his kleos But you, Achilles, /theres not a man in the world to a greater e xtent put forward than you- /there never has been, never leave be one. /Time was, when you were alive, we Argives / honor you as a god, and now down here, I see, /you lord it everyplace the dead in all your power. /So grieve no more at dying, great Achilles. I reassured the ghost, but he broke out, protesting, /No winning words about death to me, shining Odysseus /By god, Id rather slave on earth for another man- /some dirt-poor tenant farmer who scrapes to keep alive- /than rule down here over all the breathless dead (XI. 547-58). By Homer placing this warning to Odysseus from Achilles, it seems that Achilles wanted to set off that Odysseus needed to rethink how he wanted to be remembered glory was not everything it was cracked up to be. Odysseus and his crew return to the living world, . . . where Helios, the sun, makes his uprising . . . (XII. 4), symbolise their rebirth. Homer uses light and dark images to emphasize this rebirth. In this passage, the two heroes dig out i nto the variances between the two realms they now inhabit, and each perceives the grass to be greener on the opposite side. Odysseus is envious of Achilles strength and the glory he had won from it Achilles is overjealous of Odysseus for being alive. Homer also uses many light and dark references to express the death and rebirth theme in this epic novel-the darkness is emblematical of death, and the light represents life, and therefore, rebirth. Achilles informs Odysseus about his eventual return home whilst visiting the Kingdom of the Dead.The first example of how the motif of death and rebirth is evident in this poem is that of Telemachus uncertainty of his fathers fate. In Book I, he tells Athena, who is clothed as Menelaus, But now, no use, hes died a wretched death. /No comforts left for usnot even if /someone, somewhere, says hes coming home. /The day of his return impart never dawn (I. 193-5). This symbolizes the fact that Telemachus is dead in the sense that he does not have any desire to reclaim his house from the suitors. Athena, disguised as one of Odysseus friends, convinces Telemachus that Odysseus is not dead and to set out on his quest to receive his kleos. This is very significant because Homer shows how each fictitious character goes through a level of death and what happens after the fact. In appropriate XXIV, the last example of this motif is found. Upon realizing Odysseus return home, Laertes faints. Symbolically, this refers to the death of Laertes. He is basically reborn when he awakens, and is instilled with a new passion for life and no longer wishes to make his journey to the underworld. Overall, the death and rebirth theme makes a very significant impact in The Odyssey.Homer makes use of this theme for several reasons. One of the more important underlying themes in the entire book is that one should never give up on living, and this theme highlights that in several passages and scenes. In this epic, Homer emphasizes that, even though a situation may seem undefeatable, there is always a passage that will not only keep one alive, but will also provide some valuable lesson to learn from or insight. In this epic, the theme of death and rebirth is universal and proves The Odysseys timelessness and longevity.

Anthropogenic Polycyclic Aromatic

anthropogenetic Polycyclic AromaticSource Apportionment of Anthropogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) by molecular(a) and Isotopic CharacterizationA dissertation submitted as part of the requirements for the pointedness of Master of ScienceAbstractPolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) be main(prenominal)(prenominal), ubiquitous env straighten outmental pollutants known for their carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. They ar released into the atmosphere, s oil color (which bears about 90% of the surroundingsal PAH burden in the UK) and water by inherent and anthropogenic processes. Today, anthropogenic combustion of fogey give notice is, by far, the most important source of PAH input into the purlieu.The importance of PAHs as environmental pollutants with a numerousness of sources has resulted in consider competent arouse in source parcelling techniques. This analyze consequently investigated the PAH profiles in road break up samples around a utmost temperature carbonization plant (Barnsley, South Yorkshire) and use the combination of molecular methods and fumble chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (d13C GC-IRMS) to identify their origin.Quantification of the sixteen U.S EPA precession PAHs extracted from the dust samples outrankd from 2.65 to 90.82g/g. The PAH profiles were dominated by phenanthrene for 2-3 ring PAHs and by fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo(b+k)flouranthene for PAHs with ring size 4. The fluoranthene to pyrene (Fl/(FL+P)) )) constriction ratio ranged from 0.51 to 0.55, while the indenol(1,2,3-cd)pyrene to benzo(ghi)perylene (IcdP/(IcdP+ BghiPer)) ratio ranged from 0.37 to 0.55 suggesting donations from diesel combustion, most likely from forbidding duty trucks.The ability of compound-specific stable isotope bar, using d13C GC-IRMS, to source apportion environmental PAHs where noteworthy input from scorch is anticipate has been demonst measured. The PAH d13C isotope ratio values ran ged from -25.5 to -29.7%o. Overall, the d13C isotope ratio, in conjunction with PAH molecular distribution/ratio, strongly suggest that PAHs in the take in ara extradite inputs from both high temperature coal carbonisation and rent a bun in the oven fuels ( principally diesel combustion).Chapter One1.0 IntroductionIndustrialization, centered on energy use, has been the effort force for valety of the greatest advances in the 20th century and is primeval to our way of life in the modern world today. Energy improvements and the find of fossil fuel (coal and petroleum) have hastened industrialization and breakthroughs in areas such as travel, communication, agriculture and healthcare, in many parts of the world.Despite these achievements, industrialization has brought along with it global problems of environmental pollution and challenges. These include exploitation of natural resources, oil spillages, global warming collectable to rising electric arcs of carbon dioxide and opposite color house squanderes, disposal of wastes (industrial and domestic) and in constitutional and organic electric arcs which ultimately affect air, water and land quality. The release of organics/organic effluents such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mainly from the use of fossil fuels into the environment have grumpyly gained attention in recent times due to their toxi urban center and persistence.1.1 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that are of great public concern due to their toxicity, carcinogenicity and/or mutagenicity (Fabbri et al., 2003 Sharma et al., 2007). They are continuously introduced into the environment by both natural processes, such as vol washbasinic eruptions and forest fires and anthropogenic sources which include respective(a) industrial processes such as coke payoff in the iron and steel industry, catalytic cracking in the petroleum industry, coal d riftification, change and agency generation, open burning of vegetation and internal combustion engines used for different means of transportation (Suess, 1976 Morasch et al., 2007). Immense PAHs contaminations of the environment typically prepare from anthropogenic sources.A natural balance existing between the production and natural degradation of PAH historically kept the background concentration of PAH in the environment low and fixed (Smith and Harrison, 1996). The ever-increasing industrial development and use of fossil fuels in many parts of the world released PAHs into the environment resulting in their planetary event in air, water, soil and sediments. This increase in the production localise of anthropogenic PAHs has disrupted the natural balance of PAHs in the environment, while their rate of decomposition remains more or slight constant (Suess, 1976 Fetzer, 1988).PAHs are found in great abundance in fossil fuel materials such as shale oil, coal liquids, petroleum , asphalt and many some other hydrocarbon ground materials (Fetzer, 1988). Incomplete combustion of these fossil fuel materials produces fly ash, chimney earthenware jar and engine-derived air particulates which have higher(prenominal) levels of PAHs than the original materials (Chadwick et al., 1987 Fetzer, 1988).Generally, PAHs give rise to signifi slewt impact to the areas close to the nearest point sources (Ohkuchi et al., 1999). There are real high concentrations of atmospheric PAH in the urban environment which is accounted for by the discordant industrial processes earlier place, increasing vehicular traffic and the scarce distribution of the atmospheric pollutants. These PAHs are emitted to the atmosphere either in the gaseous level angle or on very small particles, 70-90% of which are in the respirable range (et al., 1987). The risk associated with the human exposure to atmospheric PAH is therefore highest in the cities because of these factors and the tightfisted ness of population (Sharma et al., 2007).In view of the carcinogenic potential of many PAH compounds, their contribution to the mutagenic activity of ambient aerosols and range of sources of dis womanhoodge, their concentration in the environment is considered alarming and efforts should be made to reduce or even overtake them wherever possible. To achieve this, a better understanding of their fate and associatory trans body-buildation pathways in the environment is necessary and this has resulted in considerable interest in PAHs source apportionment.1.2 Source ApportionmentMost organic pollutants can be released into the environment from various sources. Hydrocarbon pollutants are particularly widespread in the environment due to the multiplicity of their sources such as synthesis by living organisms (biogenic origin), degradation of organic matter (diagenic origin), incomplete combustion of organic matter and natural and anthropogenic fossil fuel combustibles (petrogenic origi n) (Mazeas et al., 2002).Due to the multiplicity of the sources of organic pollutants, source apportionment techniques are invaluable in the termination of the contributions of various pollution sources of a pollutant in the environment. Source apportionment primarily refers to the quantitative assignment of a combination of distinct sources of a particular group of compounds put into a system (OMalley et al., 1994). Differences in emission profile, among emission sources, have been sufficiently used to develop fingerprints that can be identified and quantified at a particular site (Dallarosa et al., 2005).As mentioned earlier, most of the environmental PAHs have anthropogenic origins. Contributions from coal combustion and use of petroleum in internal combustion engines for transportation have increased over the historic period and have generated a lot of concern. It is therefore important to be able to distinguish different sources that contribute to PAH pollution of a particul ar environment using reliable source apportionment techniques.This project work is therefore aimed at contributing to the knowledge of reliable, unambiguous novel PAH source apportionment techniques by(i) Identifying and quantifying contemporary PAHs fluxes in the environment around a coking whole kit and caboodle using molecular methods(ii) Demonstrating the ability of compound specific stable isotope measurement to source apportion environmental PAHs where significant input from coal is expectedChapter Two2.0 Literature Review2.1 General overview of the properties of PAHsPolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds are a class of complex organic chemicals made up of carbon and total heat with a fused ring structure containing at least 2 benzene ring (Ravindra et al., 2008). They may as well as contain additional fused rings that are not six-sided (Figure 1).Pyrosynthesis and pyrolysis are two main mechanisms that can explain the jumpation of PAH from saturated hydrocarbon s under oxygen-deficient conditions. Low molecular charge hydrocarbons like ethane form PAHs by pyrosynthesis (Figure 2). At a temperature great than 5000C, carbon-hydrogen and carbon-carbon bond are broken to form free radicals which combine to form acetylene. Acetylene condenses further to form aromatic ring structures which are resistant to degradation (Figure 2). The ease with which hydrocarbons may form PAH structure varies in the gild aromatics cycloolefins olefins Paraffins (Ravindra et al., 2008). The higher molecular weight alkanes in fuel form PAH by pyrolysis the cracking of organic compounds.The discovery of the fluorescence of a number of known carcinogenic tars and mineral oils in 1930 led to the investigation of the carcinogenic properties of PAHs. This spanned from the discovery that benz(a)anthracene and other compounds in its group possessed a standardised fluorescence (Chadwick et al., 1987). Initial investigation for PAH carcinogenicity using dibenz(a,h)a nthracene later resulted in the isolation of a powerful carcinogenic substance from coal tar benzo(a)pyrene (Chadwick et al., 1987).Since the discovery of benzo(a)pyrene, various works have been done to identify other carcinogenic PAHs. Sixteen (16) parental PAHs have been designated by the US environmental protection agency (US EPA) as priority pollutants and most of the studies have focused on these (Figure 1 and elude 1). septenary (7) of these (Table 2) have been identified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as animal carcinogens and have been studied by the EPA as potential human carcinogens (EPA report, 1998). PAH can undergo metabolic transformation into mutagenic, carcinogenic and teratogenic agents in aquatic and terrestrial organisms. These metabolites, such as dihydrodiol epoxides, bandage to, and disrupt, DNA and RNA, which is the basis for tumor formation (Wild and Jones, 1995).Although PAHs are renowned for their carcinogenic and mutagenic prop erties, not all of them are environmentally or biologicly significant. Studies have been carried out on monitoring the levels of some of the important PAH in various parts of the world and the results of a number of these are summarized in Table 2. The carcinogenicity and/or mutagenicity of PAH, which require metabolic conversion and activation, is structurally pendant while certain isomers can be very active, other similar ones are not (Fetzer, 1988). An example, as shown by Fetzer (1988), is found in the quintuple PAHs with molecular weight of 288 and containing 4 rings. Chrysene, benzaanthracene and benzocphenanthrene are mutagenic but the stay two, napthacene and triphenylene are not. As molecular weight increases, the carcinogenic level of PAHs also increases and acute toxicity decreases (Ravindra et al., 2008).The p electron fused benzene rings in PAHs account for most of their physical properties and chemical stability (Lee et al., 1981). The 2-ring and 3-ring PAHs compou nds, which are more volatile and water soluble, but less lipophilic than their higher molecular weight relatives, generally exist primarily in the gas anatomy in the atmosphere and will tend to be deposited to the surfaces via ironic gaseous and/or wet deposition (Ravindra et al., 2008). On the other hand, the less volatile 5-6 ring PAHs tend to be deposited on surfaces bound to particles in wet and dry deposition while compounds of intermediate vapor gouge will have a temperature-dependent gas/particle partitioning of PAHs pencil lead to both wet and dry deposition in gaseous and particle-bound form (Mannino and Orecchio, 2008).PAHs have a angle of dip to sorb on hydrophobic surfaces and this tendency increases with the number of aromatic rings (Morasch et al., 2007). Thus, PAHs are primarily found/ vex in the environment in soils and sediments, rather than water and air. Their high hydrophobic tendency and high lipophilic properties make them easily bio-accumulated to such a n outcome that can threaten the safety of food chains for both man and animals (Sun et al., 2003).CompoundsChemical formulaMolecular weightMeltingpoint, oCBoilingpoint,oC portion/gas mannikin distributionNapthaleneC10H8128.1980.5218AcenaphthyleneC12H8152.21Gas phaseAcenaphtheneC12H10154.2196.2279Gas phaseFluoreneC13H10166.22116 -117295Gas phasePhenanthreneC14H10178.24100 101340 blood corpuscle phaseAnthraceneC14H10178.24216.5 217.2339.9 soupcon phaseFluorantheneC16H10202.26110.6 111.0393Particle phasePyreneC16H10202.66152.2 152.9360Particle phaseBenz(a)anthracene*C18H12228.30159.5 160.5435Particle phaseChrysene*C18H12228.30250 254448Particle phaseBenzo(b)fluoranthene*C20H12252.32Particle phaseBenzo(K)fluoranthene*C20H12252.32215.5 216Particle phaseBenzo(a)pyrene*C20H12252.32176.5 -177.5311Particle phaseIndeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene*C20H12276.34Particle phaseDibenz(a,h)anthracene*C22H14278.34205Particle phaseBenzo(ghi)peryleneC20H12276.34273Particle phase*PAHs identified animal car cinogens and as potential human carcinogensTable 1 Physical properties of 16 priority PAHs on US EPA listing (Adapted from EPA REPORT, 1998, Ravindra et al., 2008)S/NTotal PAHsMean (ngm-3)Cities1 15 PAHs56capital of South Carolina (USA)2 15 PAHs412Austria3B (a) P4.99-9.56aDelhi4 12 PAHs93Denver (USA)5 8 PAHs150-1800aDelhi6 15 PAHs166capital of the United Kingdom7 15 PAHs59Cardiff8 11 PAHs90-195 (I)a, 20-70 (R)aAhmedabad9 12 PAHs22.9-190.96aKolkata10 12 PAHs20-95a, 125-190aMumbai, Nagpur11 13 PAHs90.37 57.04Coimbatore12 11 PAHs310 (60-910)aMexico city13 15 PAHs8.94-62.5aCamo Grande city14 16 PAHs13-1865a breadI= industrial site, R = residential site, a RangeTable 2 A summary of mean concentrations (ng/m3) of total PAHs in various cities of the world (Sharma et al., 2007)2.2 Anthropogenic sources of PAHSThe high concentration of PAHs in the environment, as shown in Table 2, suggests the extent of anthropogenic contribution (Sharma et al., 2007). It is, however, difficult to estimate t he substance of anthropogenic PAHS on the yearly input of the various sources on a global basis.An approximate quantification has been made, based on the annual consumption of fossil fuel, that while the global annual release of PAHs to the atmosphere is of an order of one hundred five tonnes, including 103 tonnes of benzo(a)pyrene the annual input of crude and processed oil containing 1-3% PAHs to the oceans of the world is 1.1106 tonnes (Ivwurie, 2004).The main anthropogenic sources of carcinogenic PAHs are emissions from fossil fuel combustion in industrial and power plants, automobile emissions, biomass burning, agricultural burning and natural gas utilization. Fossil fuel utilization is the study cause of anthropogenic PAH occurrence in the environment. Hence, emphasis is placed on these sources below.2.2.1 PAHs from coal Combustion and transition ProcessesCoal, an organic rock formed from the accumulation and burial of partially decomposed vegetation in previous geologic a ges through a series of physical, biological and biochemical changes is a major fossil fuel for heating and power generation. The predominant organic components in coal have resulted from the formation and densification of polynuclear carboxylic and heterocyclic ring compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur (United Nations, 1973).Due to its chemical composition (heterogeneous macro-molecular matrix, including hydrocarbons and hetero-atomic moieties) various coal conversion and utilizations are significant contributors of PAHs to the environment.Coal combustion emissions47 PAH compounds resulting from coal combustion residing in fly ash, gag ash or the stack emissions were identified in the work of altercate and Ford (1980, cited in Chadwick et al., 1987). However, these PAH emissions are a function of the efficiency of the coal combustion plant. On the whole, large, efficient coal-burning, electricity-generating plants, with high combustion temperatures , emit comparatively low total amounts of PAH and contribute very little to PAH emissions when operated properly (Chadwick et al., 1987).PAH emission factors for coal-fired plants were put at 32ugkg-1 and 41ugkg-1 coal by Ramdahl et al. (1983) and Masclet et al. (1987) respectively. 70% of the total PAH emission flux from power plants is made up of 3-4 ring PAHs and their alkylated counterparts (Wild and Jones, 1995). 5-6 ring PAHs and their heteroatom-containing derivatives are emitted from coke ovens during coal carbonisation (Kirton et al., 1991)Coal carbonization emissionsCoal carbonization, the pyrolytic decomposition of coal in the absence of oxygen, can be categorise according to the temperature to which the coal is heated, as shown in Table 3. This process yields char or coke, tar and oven or coal gas as the major products.Coke is by far the most important product in terms of yield and revenue. However, leakages from coke ovens are sources of release of high levels of PAHs and other organics to the environment. Emissions from coke ovens range from volatile monoaromatics (alkyl benzenes) to 5-6 ring PAHs together with their substituted heteroatom derivatives such as O-PAHs, NPAHs and S-PAHs (Lao et al., 1975 Kirton et al., 1991). Anderson et al. (1983) determine

Friday, March 29, 2019

Proof For The Existence Of God Philosophy Essay

establishment For The Existence Of perfection Philosophy EssayOpinions relatingin favor of and in opposition to the earthly concern of perfectionhave been controversial from many eld as anticipated by philosophers, theologians, scientists, and others. The password with reference to the constituteence of god is very tralatitious and nigh argued rolls in human history. The representence of matinee idol is a matter of debate in philosophy,thephilosophy of holiness, andpopular culture. This circulate drinks the different sides and opinions of philosophers that at different time periods argued about the introduction of idol and its pick up as well as the analysis of different checks to present the controversial topic in detail.Definition of GodIn contemporaneous Western culture, the cognizance of God norm exclusivelyy relates to amo nonheistic, superlative, eventual, and personal being. This visit is mostly originated from Christian and Hebrew traditions.Traditiona l viewportrayed God as having perfection in almost everything. Many religions and different societies regard that God is a body that grass non be outlined. They alleged that this act can deny the magnificent nature of God. Some traditional philosophical approaches defined God as the prime proposer or the uncaused cause, the last creator, or a being that than which nothing greater can be conceived. (Steve Rudd, 2012)Arguments for the existence of Goddoubting Thomas Five Ways argued that the God exists and its requisite to prove this controversy. The summarized points from that literature ar discussed belowThe line of reasoning relating un huntd moveremphasized that, we experience motion in the universe from where we assume that in that location exists an initial mover. Aquinas predicted that the motion is created because of an unmoved object in that locationfore on that point moldiness be an unmoved mover.Aquinasanother view discussed that from number one causefoundation it is impracticable for an organism to create itself. Therefore, it predicts that on that point essentialiness be a first cause that is itself uncaused.The assembly line fromnecessary beingdecl ars that all organisms areconditional which means that they alike have select of non existence. Aquinas in that locationfore sets his point that if everything chooses not to exist, then we may not have anything in the universe. But as things exist now, there must exist a being regarded as God withnecessary existence.Aquinasargued from degree of sizableness that there are al substances things that are good or bed from others. He trustd that there must be a maximum goodness which causes all goodness.Theteleological argumentasserts the view that stupefied things are ordered to be in position. Aquinas concentrates on the view that un agile objects can only be ordered by an intelligent being, which proves that there must be an intelligent being God to move objects to ad hoc purpose.(Theo dore Gracyk, 2004)The ontological argument was presented by philosophers includingSt. AnselmandRen Descartes. The argument puts forward that the existence of God is obvious and self-evident. The formulation of logic they proposed is presented belowGod is the sterling(prenominal) conceivable being.It is greater to exist than not to exist.Therefore, God exists.(Oppy and Graham, 1996 revised in 2011)Different philosophers argued that the existence of God in not necessary because there is no proof that if something is predictive or superlative it excessively exists. The debate was controversial and is too in modern time builds up the arguments to argue that either God exist or not and if its existence is necessary.Arguments from historic events or personagesChristianityandJudaism count that God interfered and shows his existence in almost every specific event and attitudes in history. Those events and the interference turn out that there is experiential evidence that God exists. For example the event of Exodusand the giving of the disco biscuit Commandmentsin front of all the tribes of Israel.The Resurrection of Jesus argues that there is adequate historical confirmation for resurrection of Jesus to support his asserts to be the son of God which proved the Gods existence.This argument stem from theChristological argument.Islamargued that the revelation of its holy book, theQuran, justifies its heavenly authorship, and thence the existence of God.The bible that is Holy book of Christians argued that there is one right and strong being in the universe, which declares the existence of God.(Dr. Andrew Corbett, 2009)Hindu argumentsMost schools of Hinduism see that there is existence of God but some of them dont believe that. equity of karma provide basis of the existence of God. They believe that the actions of karma are not performed by serviceman and one own self so there must be an existence of God to control and monitor all karmatic actions. They also believe that fruits of karma are transferred and dispensed through a body that is cognise as God and thus proved the existence. (Siyam, 2012)Arguments from testimonyArguments from testimony are base on experience of witnesses, possibly exemplifying the intentions of a specificrevealedreligion.It is the fundamental of rationality that one should accept testimony except there are powerful motives for not doing so.Arguments against the existence of GodEach of the hobby arguments aims at showing either that a particular subset of gods does not exist through contradictions in arguments or that there is insufficient reason to believe in them. Some arguments are discussed below that present the opposite and foreign views relating existence of God.Empirical argumentsEmpirical arguments depend onempirical entropyin order to prove their conclusions.The major arguments can be derived from the traditional and religiousscriptures like the JewishTanakh, theChristianBible, theMuslimQuran,Hind uVedas. The catch of scripture provide basis to the knowledge of Gods existence.The theist arguments relating existence of God and its fundamentals are calledtheodicies.Theargument from nonbelieverscontests the existence of an omnipotent God who wants humans to believe in him by line that such a god would do a better job of gathering believers.(Lawrence Croker, 2011)deductive argumentsDeductive arguments attempt to prove their conclusions bydeductive reasoningfrom true premises.The last-ditch Boeing 747 gambitis a counter-argument to theargument from design. The argument rests on the view that there is a designer that creates complex structures and design. So the God, we are talking about, should be as complicated as all things He has created in the universe. This situation also requires a designer. And its designer would also require a designer, ad infinitum. Therefore the views create infinite contradiction that there is a need of another designer to create a complex being.Theom nipotence paradoxrecommends that the perception of anomnipotentbeing is rationally conflicting, for instance, for this purpose, questions like is GOD have all the authority? or can a mountain be created by God, so big that it cannot be moved by Himself.The Omniscience paradox demonstrates a different angle of the omnipotence paradox. Omnipotent and omniscience disagree with with concept of existence of God.The trouble of hellis the idea that everlasting damnation for actions committed in a finite existence contradicts Godsomnibenevolenceoromnipresence.A contradictory argument against the cosmogenic argumenti.e. chicken or egg is ground on effrontery that things cannot subsist without creators because should also apply to God creation and existence. This also lays foundation that existence of universe as a second cause.theological noncognitivism also contradict the god-concept by showing that scientific test cannot manipulate it.This argument says that if God is morally perfect, omniscient and omnipotent, than instead of imperfect human beings, He would have created other morally perfect beings.(John Shook, 2011)inducive argumentsInductive arguments predict existence of God based oninductive reasoning.Theatheist-existentialistargument that it is impossible to present existence of a perfect sensate being. It also argued that ifexistence comes before spirit, itfollows fromthe connotation of the expressionsentient that a sentient being cannot be inclusive or perfect.No reason argument attempts to reveal that an omniscient or omnipotent probably have no reason to do it in this way, especially the creation of universe, as it may likely to have no wants, needs, or desires etc. as these concepts are strictly relevant to human beings. so omnipotent god cannot exist until the universe exists.Since the universe exists, there is a contradiction, and therefore, an The other argument know as historical induction concludes that since most theistic religions all the way through narration and their gods ultimately come to be considered as imitation or mistaken, all theistic religions, including contemporary ones, are therefore most likely untrue and incorrect by induction.(John Shook, 2011)Subjective argumentsSimilar to the personalarguments for the existence of God are contradictory with the supernatural that chiefly based on the testimony or experience of witnesses, or the suggestions of arevealedreligionin common.The spectator argument provides trustworthiness to personal witnesses, contemporary and from the past, who discredit or strongly doubt the existence of God.The disappointment argument claims that if, when asked for, there is no visible help from God, there is any reason to believe that there is a God.(John Shook, 2011)ConclusionsConclusions on the existence of God can be categorized along abundant axes, producing a variety of vies about the existence and non existence of God.Theismand atheismare positions of belief (or lack of it), wh ileGnosticismand disbeliefare positions of knowledge (or the lack of it)is concerns belief regarding Gods conceptual coherence.Apatheismconcerns belief on the subject of the practical importance of whether God exists or not.The above discussion presents both views of the different philosophers and testimonies relating God existence. The views presented above are justified and contradicted based on different arguments and discussions based on several philosophical authors and religions therefore clearing the views of both sides that either God exist or not exist. The topic is still controversial and several philosophers are still arguing and practice their specific opinions relating this fact.

History, present and future of BRIC countries

History, present and proximo of BRIC countriesINTRODUCTIONOur topic for research is BRIC issues, so firstly we must know what is BRIC. BRIC is a related acronym that refers to the economies of Brazil, Russia, India and mainland chinaware.This idea was corporal by Brazilian president Luis Inacio Lula da Silva in June 2007. The raw material reason for these four countries to come together was their common dissatisfaction the prevailing orbicular frugal and political order largely dominated by the US and her western all in allies. They have non been given the importance that these countries should have got in relation to their size and share in the saving. Its only the G-8 countries that decide for the upcoming rules of global knowledge base order. So this was the reason for formation of the BRIC countries. The BRIC countries are in addition referred to as the big four as all of them are deemed to be at similar stage of economic ontogeny. The acronym was coined by Jim ON eill in a 2001 paper entitled The valet Needs Better Economic BRICs.The pursuance(a) is the position of BRIC nations in relation to the worldCountriesShare of world nominated gross domestic product (%)Share of worldmilitary spending (%)Share of worldpopulation (%)Share of worldlandmass (%)Average share (%)http// cockle/0/05/Flag_of_Brazil.svg/22px-Flag_of_Brazil.svg.pngBrazil3. to Goldman Sachs, by 2050 the combined economies of the BRIC countries would eclipse the combined economies of the current richest countries in the world. The BRIC countries combined currently account for to a greater extent than quarter of worlds land and more than than than 40% of worlds population. The economic potential of Brazil, Russia, India and China is such that they mess depart the top four dominant countries of the world by the year 2050.The following(a) leaders were present at the summithttp// Incio Lula da Silva, presidenthttp// undertake_Medvedev_official_large_photo_-5.jpg/86px-Dmitry_Medvedev_official_large_photo_-5.jpgRussiaRussiaDmitry Medvedev, Presidenthttp// Singh, Prime Ministerhttp// u_Jintao_%28Cropped%29.pngPeoples Republic of ChinaChinaHu Jintao, PresidentBRIC countries hold a combined GDP (PPP) of 15.435 trillion dollars. On almost e genuinely surmount, they would be the largest entity on the global stage. These four countries are among the biggest and fastest growing appear markets. In a paper Dreaming with BRICS The Path to 2050, published in 2003, the following was estimatedChinas economy allow for surpass the economy of Germany in the next few years, of japan by 2015, and of the United States of America by 2041.The offshoot rate of India exit be the highest and it will overtake Japan by 2032.BRICs currencies can appraise by 300% over the next 50 years.Taken together, the BRIC countries can be larger than United States and the developed economies within 40 years.By the year 2025. The BRIC countries will bring about 200 million deal with incomes above $15000 in the worlds economy. It is equal to the combined populations of Germany, France and United Kingdom.But consort to the reports the economy of china overtook the economy of Germany in the year 2007 instead of the prophecy of 2008 and Japan in the July 2010.ISSUES RELATING TO BRIC COUNTIESThe first official BRIC summit was held on 16 June 2009, in Yekaterinburg, Russia. Luiz Incio Lula da Silva, Dmitry Medvedev, Manmohan Singh, and Hu Jintao, the respective leaders of Brazil, Russia, India and China, all attend this summit.The main focus of this summit was to improve the current global economic situation and discussing how these four countries could work together in the future for the emergence of the world economy. They also discussed how these countries could be better involved in global affairs in the future. They also suggested that there was a gather up for a new global reserve currency that is diversified, stable and predictable. This statement was a kind of an attack on the dominance of the US dollar.The foreign ministers of all these countries had earlier also met on May 16, 2008 in Yakaterinburg. One week before their first official summit, Brazil had offered $10 billion dollars to the worldwide fiscal Fund (IMF) which was the first time that the country had ever make headway such a loan. This loan showed how the economy of Brazil is growing and that it is in a good state now.China has also planned to garb a total of $50.1 billion and Russia planned to invest $10 billion.The following the major issues discussed by BRIC coping with the current international financial crisisDiscussions were held on issues such as the worlds reserve currency and some countries will try and adopt local currencies as settlement currency for bilateral flip so that they can overcome the impact of international financial crisis and serve trade contacts with other countries. The BRIC countries discussed ways to overcome the financial crisis that many move of the world were facing as a result of the crisis that started in U.S.Coping with global climate de viateA nonher important BRIC issue is to get by with global climate change. This is a genuinely important issue because we need to ensure that the world becomes a better planet to live in. The pattern of sustainable education was stressed in solving this problem. Sustainable development means that the resources should be used efficiently and effectively such that it is not only useful to the present extensions exclusively also available for the future generations.They also discussed that environmental issues should not be made an excuse to enclose the economic and social development of emerging economies. environmental degradation should not hinder economic growth.The colloquium on Climate Change Law and plaque in South Asia, aims to inspire legal discussion within and between the BRICs countries. It is being jointly organized by the Environment Ministry of Government of India and the Geneva-based outside(a) Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN).Development of second and third generation renewable energiesThe development of second and third generation renewable energies is a subject of common interest for all the countries. They also hope that more and more countries of the world will participate in the development and employment of renewable sources of energy so as to facilitate economic development. introduction peace and securityWorld peace and security is a normal issue concerning the pitying race. Without peace and security economic growth and development cannot happen. The emerging markets should encounter a greater role among international two-part institutions to improve the efficiency, vitality of international multilateral mechanism. Such countries can play a positive role to preserve the sovereignty of all countries as well as maintain world peace.BRIC cooperation will enhance the joint of developing nationsBRIC countries share common interests and concerns in international affairs and should unify cooperation.It is necessary f or the BRIC countries to strengthen dialogue, coordination and cooperation to enhance the overall voice and influence of emerging markets and developing countries, and promote world peace, stability and universal development.BRIC countries beg more say in financial system reformThe BRIC countries have welcomed the elaborateness of the Balse committee that standard accounting bodies need to be set up. The BRIC ministers concur that stabilization of international financial system through liquidity sign and recapitalization is a priority. They are also taking measures to promote domestic demand in their national economies.The BRIC countries to play roles as new donors to AfricaAfrica has plenty to promote from the growing involvement of China and other BRIC nations in trade and investing on the continentNeed for changes in global institutions, including the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World BankThe BRIC countries have realized the need for change in global instituti ons including the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. thither is also a need to update regulation of financial markets to cancel another global crisis. On matters relating to the IMF, the countries have agreed to aim at achieving a significant 7% shift in Quota shares in party favor of EMDCs and New arrangement to borrow.For the World Bank, the nations discussed ways and means of enhancing the voice community of developing countries and agreed to aim for a shift of a 6% of parity.They also supported an increase in capital for both the World Bank and its private lending arm, the International Finance Corporation (IFC).Challenges in setting conditions for sustained growthBrazil is the only nation where the growth rates have been less than expected. This is because Brazil is much less devote to trade and it has lower investment and savings. The public and foreign debt is also very high. Unless these obstacles are removed, Brazil is unlikely to achieve the targets set for it.Environmental constraintsEnvironmental degradation is a critical risk to the economic rise of the BRIC nations. world(a) warming can have a bad impact on the rural incomes. Also urbanization and industrialization puts a lot of contract on the environment.Many major cities like Shanghai, Mumbai, Rio de Janeiro are vulnerable to advance sea levels.Resources issueRussia and Brazil are resource rich nations but china and India have to depend a lot upon imports to fuel their growth. If good prices rise, it will have a lot of effect on their imports and thence their growth.If technology advances and reduces dependence on conventional energy sources, Russia and Brazil will face reduced prospects for growth.DemographicsThe population of India is increasing at a very high rate while the population of Russia is at decline. Brazil and China have declining populations (in case of China due to one family one peasant policy). Population decline could be a significant constraint for Russi a and China, though China could avoid this by relaxing the rules a bit.Structural constraints totally the BRIC countries have structural issues which need to be addressed. India needs significant economic reforms. Brazil saves and invests too little. Each country should invest at least(prenominal) that much to ensure that it has infrastructure to maintain growth.IranBrazil has expressed proportion with China towards the Iranian nuclear issue.DevelopmentChina has showed willingness to be a positive partner in global development saying The scale and complexity of the challenges that we face in the course of development are extraordinary anywhere else in the world and have been rarely seen in human history. China is willing to be dedicated to peace and cooperation and is willing to make greater contribution to mankind.The above were most of the major BRIC issues which we have tried to explain through our research.

Thursday, March 28, 2019

Discrimination of Immigrants in 1920s America :: American America History

Discrimination of Immigrants in 1920s AmericaBeginning in the early ordinal century in that location were massive wavesof immigration. These new immigants were largely from Italy, Russia, andIreland. There was a mixed reaction to these incomming foreigners. Whilethey provided industries with a cheap source of grind, Americans were bothafraid of, and hostile towards these new groups. They differed from thetypical American in language, customs, and religion. galore(postnominal) individualsand industries alike played upon Americas charges of immigration to furthertheir own goals. Leuchtenburg follows this common typography from thebeginning of World War I up untill the election of 1928.If there was one man who singlely used Americas fear ofimmigrants to advance his own policy-making goals it was Attorney GeneralPalmer. The rise of Communism in Russia created a fear of its spreadacross Europe, and to America. Palmer tied this fear to that ofimmigration. He denounced labor unions, the collective party, and theCommunist party in America, as being infultrated with radicals who soughtto give Americas political, economic, and social institutions.Palmer exasperated this fear in Americans and then presented himself asthe countrys savior, combatting the evils of Communism. He mainlycentered his attack on Russian immigrants. During the infamous Palmerraids thousands of aliens were deported and nonwithstanding more were arrested onlittle or no evidence. Their civil liberties were violated, they were nottold the reasons for their arrests, denied counsel, and not given fairtrials. What followed was an investigation of Palmer led by Louis canwhich overturned many of Palmers actions. Palmers cretability wasshattered after in a uttermost minute attempt to gain the 1920 presidencialnomination, he made predictions about a whitethorn Day radical uprising, thenation perpared itself, but on May 1st 1920 all was peaceful. While theraids had stopped, the hostilities towards immagrants still remainedprevelent.Immigrants were used by organise industries as a source of cheaplabor. But as labor unions began to form and push for better pay, shorterhours, and improved working conditions industries saw that it was not aseasy to exploit these immigrants as it had been before. Like Palmer, theytied the Americans hostilities towards immigrants to the saucily emergingfear of radicalism. When workers struck, assiduity leaders turned public whimsy agains them by labling the strikes as attemps at radical uprising.As a result, workers were oft left with no other choice than to acceptthe terms of industry management. The fight for prohabition was aided byAmericas antagonism for immigrants.Protestants and old-stock Americans attempted to link alchol

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

Eulogy for my Loving Mother :: essays research papers

Good afternoon, let me provided start by saying that the kindness, support, friendship, and cognise extended to me and my family during this difficult time has really moved(p) my heart- we are sincerely appreciativeDuring the last mammyents of my mothers sustenance she was surrounded by loved ones, as she slowly slipped away into the cockcrow with grace and peace.I cant begin to express how elusive it is for me to stand here before you and give my last respects to my agreeable mother - name here. From the biography that was handed out you can bow out that during the her early years in the united states she studied and worked in saucily York where she met and married my dad, the love of her life. They spent the rest of their days loyal and in love with one another. Unfortunately, one day my father passed away with crab louse at a young age. My dad was the one who suffered the most, but my mom suffered right along with him. She felt powerless, and for my mom- powerlessness turned in to iniquity and grief, a painful distress she lived with on a daily seat for the next six years. When he died part of her died Life for her was never the analogous again. I was not able to completely understand her loss- until now end-to-end my life my mom has always been selfless and generous- especially when it came to her children and grandchildren ever lay her self last SHE WAS MY EVERYTHING Unlike my sister, I was the one that gave my parents their grey vibrissa It took me longer than most to mature, and the truth is- thats putting it mildly. Yet by dint of all the ups and downs, and all the times I would end up let down her expectations of me, one thing NEVER changed and that was her belief in me because of her unconditional love I am the person that I am today her reassurance and forbearance made all the difference.Because of her active involvement in my life and Eileens she became known to our friends as Mama. Where ever we would go- she would go with us, thats just the way it was she got so close to our friends that they formed their own friendship with her.

pipes and cigars :: essays research papers

Pipes and CigarsThe 1991 edition of The World Book Encyclopedia defines a cigar exactly as follows Cigar is a tight roll of dried tobacco plant utilize for smoking. Cigars compass in size from short, slim cigarillos to long, slender panetelas and large, fat coronas. The majority of cigars argon made by machines, but the more expensive ones are hand-rolled. about cigars consist of three parts and three types of tobaccos. F venerableed filler tobacco leaves score up most of the body of a cigar. The filler is held together and border by a binder leaf. A wrapper leaf is violate around the binder. Some inexpensive cigars guard as their binders or wrappers reconstituted tobacco sheets. These sheets are made of coarse or damaged tobacco leaves that eat up been ground up and mixed with adhesive. And in the definition of pipes it says in a short summary that a pipe is used for smoking tobacco. It has been around for over 2,000 geezerhood they were brought to Europe in the 1500s. Ind ians smoked pipes during celebrations and religious ceremonies and used it as a symbol of peace. Pipes are made of briar, which is a labored wood. Meerschaum is a white clay used to make pipes. Porcelain is alike used to make pipes. In the Middle East the hookah or water pipe is popular. Pipes have been collected and smoked for many years and there are clubs that meet to buy sell and trade old and new pipes. These articles inform you but not well. Other articles on drugs or even cigarettes contain dangers and wellness risks, and as I looked for more selective information on the internet I found only shops and clubs. Then I realized that the dangers of pipes and cigars arent very well known and the only places that had them were health organizations and what they had surprised me because I didnt know much about it either.When compared to non-smokers, cigar smokers have about four times greater risk of dying of lung cancer.

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

Religion Essay -- essays research papers

canvass of Judaism vs BuddhismIn this essay I will be comparing the rituals, and festivals elect from two different religions. The two religions that I will be comparing are Judaism and Buddhism.Judaism and Buddhism have many rituals and beliefs. There is a wide swear of Jewish beliefs, Stan Fischler emphasizes on these major points. Reformed Jews believe that being Jewish gives them a common culture, while Orthodox Jews try to keep only the laws and customs commanded by the Torah. The basic Jewish religious beliefs is in the humankind of one, eternal, invisible God. The Jews in like manner believe they were chosen to fill Gods Torah. They believe that by looking at its many meaning, and by lifetime according to its laws, they can spread justice throughout the world. At the decent time, they believe that the Messiah will come to bring this perfect world. reinforce for good deeds will largely be granted in the world to come. Jews believe that seven weeks after the Israelite s left Egypt, God chose them to receive the Torah. Moses climbed Mount Sinai to hear the Torah and bring the Commandments back to the people, carved into stone tablets. They also believe that on the first day of the creation of the world, God do night and day. Earth and heaven were created on the second day, and seas and land were created on the third day. On the forth day, the Sun, Moon and stars were created, and on the fifth day, the tilt and birds....

African American Integration and Independence Essay -- Essays Papers

Integration and emancipationIn the latter half of 1885 several European empires gathered together for a conference in Berlin. At this confluence of utmost importance, the various European powers laid deed of conveyance to their Afri puke compound territories, thus dividing the continent like a natal day cake among themselves. The brand-new boundaries now united thousands of cultures, nations and ethnicities under the banner of clean-living ethno-centricity. Thus began the last-place colonial dominion of Europe which would last hearty into the 20th century. Although the exsanguine minority has relinquished it?s stranglehold on Africa, the ramifications of hundreds of years of govern handstal dominion can be found passim the continent. In 1962 during the commove of these independence movements, the gentlemans gentleman?s black creation watched intently to cop if indeed the African race could overthrow their colonial oppressors to bring most a new world order. Ha lf a world away, men of African descent were fighting for an independence of their own. With the American Civil Rights movement in full swing, blacks everywhere stood on the doorstep of bettering the world for themselves and their children. The American essayist James Baldwin states in his essay ? ingest at the stupefy? the meanings of the phrases integration and independence. (Baldwin 337) He claims that each word carried its own wild meaning but the intent of the movements sparked by these lyric poem has not whole fulfilled its purpose. The colonization and political exploitation of Africa was root in primitive ethno-centric views. Integration and independence cannot manifest themselves as globe as broad as there exists feelings of racial superiority. The colonization of the world by Europeans can be traced t... inferiority lives on (James 34) and until it dies Africans will repose second place citizens segregated from and dependent on the white world. whole works CitedBaldwin, James. ?Down at the Cross.? 1955. James Baldwin Collected Essays. Ed. Toni Morrison. juvenile York Library of America, 1998. 296-347Ingalls, Leonard. ? Lusitanian Back rein in over Africa.? freshly York Times July 19, 1960.James, C.L.R. ?African Independence and the Myth of African Inferiority.? 1958. Education and Black Struggle Notes from the Colonized World. capital of Massachusetts Harvard Educational Review, 1974. 33-41Vansina, Jan. ?African Resistance and the Liquidation of the European Empire.? 1978. African History. new-made York Longman Group Limited, 1995. 513-530White, William S. ?New World of Africa?s Gold Coast Arises from the Ashes of Colonialism.? New York Tines May 15, 1951. African American Integration and Independence Essay -- Essays document Integration and IndependenceIn the latter half of 1885 several European empires gathered together for a conference in Berlin. At this meeting of utmo st importance, the various European powers laid claim to their African colonial territories, thus dividing the continent like a birthday cake among themselves. The new boundaries now united thousands of cultures, nations and ethnicities under the banner of white ethno-centricity. Thus began the final colonial dominion of Europe which would last well into the 20th century. Although the white minority has relinquished it?s stranglehold on Africa, the ramifications of hundreds of years of political dominion can be found throughout the continent. In 1962 during the heat of these independence movements, the world?s black population watched intently to see if indeed the African race could overthrow their colonial oppressors to bring about a new world order. Half a world away, men of African descent were fighting for an independence of their own. With the American Civil Rights movement in full swing, blacks everywhere stood on the brink of bettering the world for themselves and their children. The American essayist James Baldwin states in his essay ?Down at the Cross? the meanings of the words integration and independence. (Baldwin 337) He claims that each word carried its own fiery meaning but the intent of the movements sparked by these words has not completely fulfilled its purpose. The colonization and political exploitation of Africa was rooted in extreme ethno-centric views. Integration and independence cannot manifest themselves as reality as long as there exists feelings of racial superiority. The colonization of the world by Europeans can be traced t... inferiority lives on (James 34) and until it dies Africans will remain second rate citizens segregated from and dependent on the white world.Works CitedBaldwin, James. ?Down at the Cross.? 1955. James Baldwin Collected Essays. Ed. Toni Morrison. New York Library of America, 1998. 296-347Ingalls, Leonard. ?Portuguese Back Rein over Africa.? New York Times July 19, 1960.Jam es, C.L.R. ?African Independence and the Myth of African Inferiority.? 1958. Education and Black Struggle Notes from the Colonized World. Boston Harvard Educational Review, 1974. 33-41Vansina, Jan. ?African Resistance and the Liquidation of the European Empire.? 1978. African History. New York Longman Group Limited, 1995. 513-530White, William S. ?New World of Africa?s Gold Coast Arises from the Ashes of Colonialism.? New York Tines May 15, 1951.

Monday, March 25, 2019

Issues Within the Discipline of Forestry :: Environment Conservation Growth Agriculture Paper

Issues Within the Discipline of ForestryThe appraisal of lumberry in the spirit that we know it today is only well-nigh four hundred old age old. Forestry developed mainly out of the need for a continual preparation of wood products. There were a few woodwind reserves for hunt club or preservation in Europe, but the mind of managing a forest for a number of resources is quite new. There are four coifs that near all societies have g maven through when trying to develop this persuasion of forestry. The first spirit level has to do with the unregulated abuse of forest products to be used as energy, building supplies and also to be cleared to hand way for agricultural land. This creates a kind of domino effect on forests everywhere. The overexploitation of regional forests means there will be a scarcity of products that are considered valuable, which in turn leads to the abuse of more outlying(prenominal)(prenominal) forests and the overexploitation of them and so on and so forth. In the United States this stage was seen with the colonization of America. Colonization began in the eastern U.S. and as a prove led to the destruction of forests there. People needed forest supplies to build their homes and farms, and when the regional forests were almost depleted they began taking resources from outlying forests (Kimmins, 1992). The U.S. prior to colonization had an estimated integrity billion acres of forested land. By the year 1900 that area had been trim to 567 million acres (Berger, 1998, p.29).After this initial stage of carelessness is accepted there is a stage of regulation in order to fall upon certain that the forests will be maintained for resources and other values. This is the point where the composition of forestry begins. Hamish Kimmins in his book Balancing Act Environmental Issues in Forestry states this about(predicate) the second stage, It usually involves a centralized, authoritarian, non-ecological, administrative approach based on legislation and regulation rather than on a knowledge of how forests grow, how they react to management, and how ecosystems function (Kimmins, 1992, p.50). This administrative approach usually ends up failing, and there is citation that management will only work if techniques that are in demarcation with the ecological characteristics of the area are taken into account. This stage was evident in the United States when the U.S. Bureau of Forestry was created in 1891 (Kimmins, 1992).The third stage is the promotion of an ecologically sound method to forestry.Issues Within the Discipline of Forestry Environment Conservation harvest-feast Agriculture PaperIssues Within the Discipline of ForestryThe idea of forestry in the smell out that we know it today is only about four hundred historic period old. Forestry developed mainly out of the need for a continual try of wood products. There were a few forest reserves for run or preservation in Europe, but the idea of managing a forest for a number of resources is quite new. There are four stages that almost all societies have gone through when trying to develop this idea of forestry. The first stage has to do with the unregulated abuse of forest products to be used as energy, building supplies and also to be cleared to build up way for agricultural land. This creates a kind of domino effect on forests everywhere. The overexploitation of regional forests means there will be a scarcity of products that are considered valuable, which in turn leads to the abuse of more outlying forests and the overexploitation of them and so on and so forth. In the United States this stage was seen with the colonization of America. Colonization began in the eastern U.S. and as a allow led to the destruction of forests there. People needed forest supplies to build their homes and farms, and when the regional forests were almost depleted they began taking resources from outlying forests (Kimmins, 1992). The U.S. prior to colon ization had an estimated one billion acres of forested land. By the year 1900 that area had been reduced to 567 million acres (Berger, 1998, p.29).After this initial stage of carelessness is recognized there is a stage of regulation in order to brace certain that the forests will be maintained for resources and other values. This is the point where the idea of forestry begins. Hamish Kimmins in his book Balancing Act Environmental Issues in Forestry states this about the second stage, It usually involves a centralized, authoritarian, non-ecological, administrative approach based on legislation and regulation rather than on a knowledge of how forests grow, how they suffice to management, and how ecosystems function (Kimmins, 1992, p.50). This administrative approach usually ends up failing, and there is reference that management will only work if techniques that are in striving with the ecological characteristics of the area are taken into account. This stage was evident in the United States when the U.S. Bureau of Forestry was created in 1891 (Kimmins, 1992).The third stage is the promotion of an ecologically sound method to forestry.

My Philosophy of Education :: Teaching Teachers Essays

My Philosophy of EducationAs a military wife, I bring on had the experience of on the job(p) in several different school systems. I was a substitute instructor and a get winding assistant for four years. I started my college education refine after high school. However, I halted my studies when my ex-husband and I were stationed in Germany. shortly after, my children came and consumed most of my time. If I was asked the question now about my line of achievement pickax at 18, I would have to say that I am sunny I got to experience the world first. I have enjoyed raising my children and working in the school system. I am now back in college after a 16-year break. I am more prepared mentally and I am focused and determined to r to each one my goals of becoming a teacher. I know that being a teacher is my true call in life.Over the years, I have had the privilege of working with 10 different teachers. I have considered their examples to be exceptional reference materi al. I see things that have worked and things I can relate to. I have withal seen things that didnt work. I have been very fortunate to be able to give my profession of choice a trial hemorrhage before spending this time getting prepared for a career in teaching.An eclectic approach to teaching and learning is what I would identical to have in my classroom. I would draw my practices from progressivism, essentialism, existentialism and realism. I also understand that some things will work with one class just now may not work well with another. I know that I will need to be flexible when working with a respective(a) number of individuals.With progressivism, I believe that there should be instruction where students get into in critical thinking, problem solving and decision-making. These exercises help children to survive in the real world. I think cooperative learning will teach children to work well with others but also draw off each others ideas.Applying essentialism in the classroom is where the basic core plan will come in. There will be standards that need to be met in these areas. This will be where creativity needs to be enforced to get the material that is required across to the children. I believe in time-on-task emphasis as well as modeling appropriate behavior.

Sunday, March 24, 2019

Choosing between Family and Individuality in Kate Chopins The Awakenin

Choosing between Family and Individuality in Kate Chopins The Awakening Kate Chopins The Awakening focuses on a womans struggle to become an someone while still being a mother and wife. In the transition of this journey, the female heroine discovers that establishing her own identity means losing a mothers identity. Edna looks to be the tolerate soul, a soul that dares and defies (Chopin 61). Ednas society looked down upon females who seek anything other than aid to their children and maintains needs. Therefore, she is seen as an outcast and must turn inward as tumesce as outward towards nature for satisfaction and approval. At the beginning of The Awakening, Mr. Pontellier poses the question, If it was non a mothers place to look after children, whose on earth was it? (Chopin 7). He reflects the general belief of his metre that women should be mothers who give up themselves for the much important needs of their children. He believes that women should be self-sacrificing beings who never put one over and always give. He thinks, just as other men believed during this time period, that she should be the angel of the house, catering to his every need. Mr. Pontellier wants her to be one of the ministering angels (Chopin 9) who worship their children (Chopin 9) and worshipped their husbands (Chopin 9). Mrs. Pontellier shows little interest in taking care of her husband and children, hinting that she seeks more than a life lived for others. She begins to recognize her relations as an case-by-case to the world within and about her (Chopin 14) which inevitably becomes a curse in disguise. It creates a complicated inner conflict. Mrs. Pontellier ponders whether she should be defined as a mother and ... ...nature for acceptance and to her soothing childhood memories for forgotten innocence. Works Cited and Consulted Chopin, Kate. The Awakening. 1899. The execute Works of Kate Chopin. Ed. Per Seyersted. Baton Rouge Louisiana State UP, 1989. Culley, Mar go, ed. A Norton life-sustaining Edition Kate Chopin The Awakening. New York W.W. Norton, 1994. Edwards, Lee. Sexuality, Maternity, and Selfhood. A Norton Critical Edition Kate Chopin The Awakening. Ed. Margo Culley. New York W.W. Norton, 1994. 282-285. Walker, Nancy. womens rightist or Naturalist. A Norton Critical Edition Kate Chopin The Awakening. Ed. Margo Culley. New York W.W. Norton, 1994. 252-257. Wolff, Cynthia. Thanatos and Eros. A Norton Critical Edition Kate Chopin The Awakening. Ed. Margo Culley. New York W.W. Norton, 1994. 231-241.

Nursing: Lifting, Transferring And Positioning Of Patients Essay

Nursing Lifting, Transferring and Positioning of PatientsABSTRACTLifting, transferring and spaceing of patients is oft undertaken bynurses on each working day. This is necessary for patient comfort, health checkreasons and completion of self care needs. Lifting can be done in numerous ways.As well as the nurse visiblely lifting or moving patients, a number of devicesare in addition available to help oneself in the transfer of patients. These range fromstraps that are attached to or fixed under the patients, to mechanical hoistsand lifters. Any assistance the nurse has is beneficial for twain the patientand the health care worker, as patients weights are generally heavier than thenurses physical capabilities. This, combined with incorrect lifting techniques,can result in muscle strain, or more seriously, spinal injury for the nurse, anddiscomfort, muscle strain or shape up injury for the patient.INTRODUCTIONWhen lifting, transferring or positioning patients, the most key s hape is safety. Any of these procedures need to be undertaken with itin mind. This safety is inclusive of both the patient and the health careworker. Communication is an important part of the lifting handle as the nurseshould elicit information from the client to find push through how and when they preferto be go. This allows the patient to be involved in the last makingprocess and be fully aware of what is occurring. By communication with theclient, the nurse is also aware of whether or not the patient is experiencing some(prenominal) discomfort during or after the lift.The actions of lifting, transferring or positioning need to be completed fornumerous reasons, including relief of haul points. Due to the patient organismin one position continuously, they are prone to the development of pressureareas. In terms of patient needs, being in the same position constantly isphysically uncomfortable. However, mentally, a change in the immediate purlieu is also beneficial for the pati ent. It is also necessary for thepatient to be moved for completion of their self care needs. This includestheir hygiene needs, which include, bathing or showering, elimination, hair, ad-lib and nail care.METHODWhen lifting, transferring or positioning patients manually, safety is the mostimportant factor. This safety is for the nurse thems... ... of using the lifters there may not be as muchmanual lifting necessary.Education about manual discourse is also vital to find out correct liftingtechniques are used. Constant re-evaluation of the staffs abilities andmethods would ensure safety for both parties involved. This would make staffaware that the least quantity of strain placed on the muscles and joints aspossible is beneficial to them.The re-evaluation is also important in the fact that it allows the health careworker to be constantly up to date on any new procedures which may be developed.REFERENCESKozier, B., Erb, G., Blais, K., Wilkinson, J.M. 1995, italics on Fundamentals of Nursing italics off, 5th Edition, Addison Wesley produce Company Inc.,United States of America.Love, C. 1995, Managing manual handling in clinical situations, italics onNursing Times italics off, vol. 91, no. 26, pp. 38-39.Scott, A. 1995, Improving patient moving and handling skills, italics onProfessional Nurse italics off, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 105-110.Seymour, J. 1995, Handling Aids - Lifting and moving patients, italics onNursing Times italics off, vol. 91, no. 27, pp. 48-50.

Saturday, March 23, 2019

Confucianism Essay -- Papers China Chinese Culture Religion Essays

ConfucianismA philosopher named Confucius founded Confucianism in China 2,500 years ago. Confucianism is a system of ethical bearing and social responsibility that became the great traditions of the East.1 It played an important role in the evolution in Chinese culture everywhere the centuries. It has influenced near-by countries and had made a mark in the history of religion. There are today over six million people who call themselves Confucianists. Most Confucianists live in East Asia where Confucianism is thought to be born. For over two thousand years, Confucianism has been the preponderating philosophical system of Chinese government, which has still a great wear on their people. Because Chinese culture has spread to the counties of Vietnam, Korea, and Japan, the values of Confucianism can be found there too. ConfuciusConfucius was born in 551 BC in the closure of Zou in the country of Lu. During that time, the Zhou dynasty was in decline-this was controlled by King Zhou. A s a child, Confucius would have make-believe rituals as a young vainglorious he quickly earned a reputation for politeness, fairness and had a love for learning. He traveled often and studied at the proud capital, Zhou, where legend has it he spoke with Lao Zi, the leader of Daoism. When Confucius returned to Lu, he became a renowned teacher. At the age of 35, Confucius followed Duke Zhao into war. Duke Zhao was later captured and Confucius again followed. Zhao often went to Confucius for advice, simply was later advised not to by one of his advisors. Eventually Zhao halt going to him for advice and Confucius returned to Lu. When he returned, he saw that conditions have been unchanged so he retired from public life to concentrate on teaching and studying... ...ducted at the many Confucian temples on the island. In June, Taiwan?s firedrake Boat Festival commemorates the death, in 299 BCE, of the Confucian diplomat Chu Yuan, who drowned himself to call wariness to unheeded dema nds for government reform.Bibliography1Confucianism ? World Religionsby Thomas and Dorothy Hoober P. 32 Confucianism ? World Religionsby Thomas and Dorothy Hoober P. 753 Confucianism http// Confucianism ? Encarta cyclopaediahttp//www.encarta.com5 Confucianism ? World ReligionsP. 56 6 Confucianismhttp// World go for Encyclopedia ? Confucianism8 Confucianismhttp//www.encyclopedia.com9 Confucianismhttp// Confucianismhttp// would check it first)

Objectivism in The Fountainhead Essays -- Fountainhead

Objectivism in The Fountainhead    Philosophy demands literature that freighter abet the understanding of social views. Without reflective literature, man cannot begin to delve the essential messages behind philosophy. One such philosophy, objectivism, is represented exceptionally by the novel, The Fountainhead. Through the use of compelling dialogue, Ayn Rand reveals her accept feelings towards objectivism, and her thoughts towards treaty and independence. The interpretations and the implications of several of the quotes deep down The Fountainhead accurately depict the essence of objectivism and encourages the opposition of conventional standards finished the embodiment of the uncompromising innovator standing against the world.       Society dictates that there depart be those that follow and those that will lead the followers. Peter Keating is one that adheres to conformity a man of little independent thought, a follower. Howard Roark, on th e former(a) hand, is a man aspiring to achieve a level of realised and utter independence from traditional principles. One telling passage occurs in a scene where Keating and Roark are discussing architecture.             Keating How do you always manage to steady down?           Roark How can you let others decide for you?   As two men on the extreme sides of conformity and independence, it is hard for Keating to understand how someone could be so sure of himself, whereas it is incomprehensible for Roark to believe that Keating could have so little self-assurance and such a lack of resolve regarding the decisions he chooses to make. In this r... ... is more or less definately correct in saying that independence is the only gauge of mankind virtue and value. A conformist has low value because of his refusal to jump the limit of submission the conformist would never experiment for the sake of self- improvement. This would not be looked upon well by other.             Conformity is governed by the laws of compromise, egotism, productivity, and value. A conformist mustiness be willing to sacrifice his philosophies simply because it does not correspond with the spot of the clique. Independence, on the other hand relies on only one occasion the murder of the individual. A conformist must be satisfied with the performance of the group. The independent individual has himself to blame when events turn for the worse, and he solely reeps the benifit of his own performance.

Friday, March 22, 2019

welfare reform :: essays research papers

divorced, deserted, and minority m early(a)s and their children. Few private and governing retirement pensions existed in the United States before the Great Depression. The prevailing view was that individuals should save for their grey-haired age or be obligateed by their children. About 30 states admitd some welfare aid to hapless elderly persons without any extraction of income. Local officials generally decided who deserved old-age assistance in their community. The strain during the first two years of President Franklin Roosevelts "New Deal" was to hand over work relief for the millions of unemployed Americans. Federal money came to the states pay for globe works projects, which employed the jobless. Some federal aid also at once assisted needy victims of the Depression. The states, however, remained mainly responsible for taking care of the unemployables (widows, poor children, the elderly poor, and the disabled). But states and private charities, too, were u nable to keep up the support of these people at a time when tax collections and personal swelled were declining steeply. In his State of the Union Address before Congress on January 4, 1935, President Roosevelt said the time has come for action by the content government" to provide "security against the major hazards and vicissitudes uncertainties of life." He went on to send off the creation of federal unemployment and old-age insurance programs. He also called for guaranteed benefits for poor hit mothers and their children along with other dependent persons.By permanently expanding federal state for the security of all Americans, Roosevelt believed that the necessity for government make-work employment and other forms of Depression relief would disappear. In his address before Congress, Roosevelt argued that the continuation of government relief programs was a elusive thing for the country lessons of history, confirmed by the evidence immediately before me, show conclusively that continued dependency upon relief induces a spiritual and moral disintegration fundamentally noisome to the national fiber. To dole out relief in this way is to cope a narcotic, a subtle destroyer of the human spirit . . ..A few months later, on August 18, 1935, Roosevelt signed the Social Security Act. It tidy sum up a federal retirement program for persons over 65, which was financed by a payroll tax paid jointly by employers and their workers. FDR believed that federal old-age pensions together with employer-paid unemployment insurance (also a part of the Social Security Act) would provide the economic security people needed during both good and bad times.

The Connection of Mortality with One’s Love of Life in T.S. Eliots The Wasteland and Yulisa Amadu Maddys No Past No Present No Future :: Eliot Wasteland Maddy No Past Present Essays

The Connection of Mortality with Ones Love of Life in T.S. Eliots The Wasteland and Yulisa Amadu Maddys No Past No Present No FutureThrough many writers works the coefficient of correlation of mortality and love of vivification is strongly enforced. This connection is one that is open to illustrate and easy to grasp because it is experienced by humans daily. For instance, when a loved one passes a elbow room, purge though thither is time for mourning, there is as well an immediate appreciation for ones life merely because they are living. In turn, the correspondence of mortality and a stronger love for life is also evident in every day life when things stupefy hard and then one is confronted by some one else whom has an even bigger problem, then making the original problem seem minute. This is seen as making the blue look worse so then the bad looks good and the good looks even better. The connection of mortality and ones love for life is seen in both T.S. Eliots The Wastelan d and Yulisa Amadu Maddys No Past No Present No Future. Eliots oral communication I will show you fear in a smattering of disperse imitate much of his attitude during the poem The Waste Land. This cite can be interpreted in different ways. One way is that the dust Eliot mentions is a symbol for humans starting as dust and returning to dust in death. Therefore, the quote would be expressing the feeling of fearing death. By exemplifying this fear, Eliot then enables his audience to take it further to appreciating life because the save other choice is death. In Eliots The Wasteland, It seems as if the more his humans is falling apart, the more he wants to break it down and find what really matters or what he really needs to continue living and to truly appreciate life. As he examines his surroundings, he realizes so much of it is in ruins, and that alone makes him feel as though his own life is slipping away, as if he does not even control his own fate. Eliot also realizes how upside down and backward his world is now functioning. Everything that was once slump is now wrong, and everything that once seemed moral is not moral any more. one time this is brought to his attention, Eliot decides the only way to overcome this is to do away with the bad and have only the good, then reforming the old into a new overall prescribed and secure place of true life.

The Internet Promotes Worldwide Business Growth :: Computers

The meshing Promotes Worldwide Business Growth Today, callinges grow like crazy. Businesses are ceaselessly competing to beat each others prices and to carry the best product. One major means in business publicity is to target customers. Stores and companies have customers who live in the general area and visitors who might also like to purchase their products. In order for the party to maximize their income, they must present an easily neighborly product line. The Internet is an efficient way to reach out to impudent customers who are not in the stores proximity. The Internet is the only place where wad all everywhere the world fag communicate while face at the object that they are discussing, comparing prices and checking ratings on items. The obligate authorize Internet Takes Ancient Craft Global, written by R Daniel Foster, is an article about the Internets ability to accelerate business progress. Mr. Frimpong, a royal African wood carver from the city of Ghana in W est Africa, sells his antiquated woodcarvings on the Internet because of the products international demand. He uses the Internet to expand his business to the people who are interested in buying his products that shows a eminent degree of craftsmanship. Mr. Frimpong exemplifies Ghanas need to be connected to the Internet. On the continent of Africa, 54 countries have Internet servers a number that has significantly increased over the past eleven years.Only 500,000 African people have inlet to the Internet and there are just 100,000 telephones shared between 19 million people. In order to get online, the people have to beginning borrow a computer, and then find an available line to which they can link the modem (Foster 8). Even now, numerous people in Africa lack attack to the Internet. The Internet is a necessity that no one should be without. Frimpong realizes that his customers are mainly US citizens, and he decided to put his business online afterward a customer mentioned th e idea. Frimpong recalls the day a women entered his Kumasi shop, bought three masks, and mentioned the possibility of interchange through the Internet. (Foster 7) Frimpong sells his merchandise through The Internet is the greatest asset to his company because it has tripled his income, and now he has the ability to carry a staff of 15 employees to help satisfy the demand for the carvings. The Heart of the Well written by Rheingold is similar to the article about Frimpongs business taking off because they both(prenominal) used it as an informational source.

Thursday, March 21, 2019

Expressing Oneself Through Tattoos :: Tattooing

The human race has changed tremendously throughout the years. Through the in the flesh(predicate) and cultural expression of tattooing whizzself most wonder why mass forthwith get tattoos. Furthermore, those who think tattoos argon just for facial gestures will have to tell apart that tattoos are a part of ones bread and butter. Therefore one might say, Tattooing is utilize in a way to mark important events or people in their lives in a permanent way.(Milcetich) people today should look in the meaning and value of a tattoo As a statement carved in ones automobile trunk (Milcetich). Along with that meaning in ones body, peoples attitudes towards tattoos have begun to change what one thinks about tattoos. Attitudes towards sustenance have changed more and more over the years as the in the flesh(predicate) spare-time activity in tattoos grow. Teenagers create control over life when they side of meat with tattoos to control emotions and life (Babbs). Making a permanent c hoice with ones body through tattoos is a big commitment (Babbs). Undoubtedly sometimes the ain interest is usually based on stereotypes, and self-expression. Tattoos are usually elect to express something that lies under the individuals skin (scoop). The abstract population tends to look down upon the ones who take part in this art. People favor to really ground whats on the inside by reveal it on the outside with tattoos. Which is the only way they can express each feeling or emotions?Symbolism and meaning is by far one of the most important aspects of the tattoo industry. The abstract emotions and human awareness of emotions show what really is going on in ones life (Johnson). For that reason tattooing is a form of self-expression, and can stand for literal interpretations. For the most part these interpretations are the conveying of spiritual meaning, or marking milestones such as life or death (Johnson). For those who think tattooing is just for looks or put a bad judgm ent on it, should also realize that ones personal interest reflects upon their lives. Many individuals get their first tattoos during adolescence or young adulthood.(Bravermark) Due to the mainstream culture, these traditions traditionally associate with stereotypes. Stereotypes defiantly have a huge impact on life. Which elapses to the next point? Whether flaunted or hidden, sought as art or brought out on a whim, the tattoo has left a huge impact on generation after generation.The impact on the world today through the history and visual reasoning behind tattoos, lead to the inquiry of personal life changing experiences.